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Vancouver Referencing Style

Vancouver is a numerical referencing style used by the School of Medicine. The Vancouver-NIH style is published by the National Library of Medicine and is recommended by the BMJ, JAMA and The Lancet.

Always double-check with your supervisor or School Office that you are using the correct style.

Vancouver-NIH Style Guides

Using Vancouver-NIH in EndNote

The Vancouver-NIH style is available in EndNote Desktop. If you require superscript citations, please follow the guidance below: 

  1. - Open EndNote Desktop
  2. - Click Edit >> Output Styles >> Edit Vancouver
  3. - In menu on the left, under Citations, click Templates
  4. - Highlight (Bibliography-Number)
  5. - Click on A1 at the top of the editing window (this looks like an "A" with a superscript "1") and delete the brackets
  6. - Close Vancouver style (using the small 'x' in the top right corner).  When the dialogue box asks if you want to save it, say yes.  Give the style a new name e.g."Vancouver Superscript".


If you have downloaded EndNote Desktop to your own computer and the Vancouver-NIH style does not appear in the list of referencing styles, it can be downloaded from Clarivate: Vancouver-NIH output style. You can then edit the style as above, if you require superscript citations.

For further help with using EndNote, see the Referencing Guide.

Vancouver Liverpool Style Guide

In previous years, the Library has offered support with the Vancouver Liverpool referencing style. From academic year 2019/20, the Library will actively support the Vancouver-NIH referencing style, and Vancouver Liverpool will become a legacy style, phased out by July 2020. For more information, contact your Liaison Librarian.