OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities) is the style used by the Law School at the University of Liverpool.
OSCOLA is minimal style and uses very little punctuation. It may be quite different to any referencing style you have used before, however the OSCOLA Quick Guide will help you by providing examples and advice on how to use OSCOLA in your work.
OSCOLA Style Guides
Use the guides below to help you format your references correctly in the OSCOLA style. The OSCOLA Quick Guide covers the majority of sources you will need to cite and provides additional advice, such as the best way to refer to the same source several times and incorporating quotations into your work.
This Quick Guide provides examples and guidance on how to cite in the OSCOLA style. The guide covers the most common sources you will need to cite within your work, including case law, legislation, EU sources, international treaties, books, journal articles and many other document types. Help on using footnotes and guidance on creating a bibliography is also included.
NEW! OSCOLA referencing: Support and guidance Sway resource
The materials in this Sway file will help you to understand the importance of academic referencing and how to reference appropriately and in the correct style. The Sway file is a mixture of text, videos and activities to support the development of your referencing and academic integrity skills. Click on the three dots in the top right hand corner of the image below to open up the Sway in a new tab.
This is a link to the guide for the 4th edition of OSCOLA, produced by the University of Oxford. We advise you only consult this guide if the source you need to cite is not included in the OSCOLA Quick Guide.
Guidance on citing international legal sources is not included in the 4th edition of OSCOLA. See the OSCOLA Quick Guide for help with citing international treaties, judgments and international documents in general. For anything more complex, see this section from an earlier edition of OSCOLA.