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Library - University of Liverpool
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Library for Online Programmes

Note for staff on Reading Lists and Linking to E-Resources

E-Resource linking tools should be used as a supplementary option alongside our Reading Lists @ Liverpool platform, when you add E-Resource to Reading Lists @ Liverpool, links are generated automatically and can be updated site-wide in the event of major changes. 
Any form of E-Resource links may change following system updates or platform changes, if you manually insert links in online modules these will need to be checked periodically (e.g. at normal module review phases).

Note - If you simply copy and paste URLs from the URL/address bar when browsing Library databases/collections/journals etc. this copied link often won't work later or the link may change in the future, this is because many databases use temporary/session data in URLs. To create a link please see notes below. 

  • Open URL (E-Journal Article) - this will show a popup listing licensed sources.
  • DOI (E-Journal Article using Document Object Identifier) - this will display the version of the resource hosted by the original online publisher, note - we sometimes license from 3rd parties, not the original publisher, so some journals may not be usable as a DOI link. You can also create a generic, non-authenticated DOI link (e.g. for publicly viewable papers/assignments/theses), these links will not direct via UoL authentication (so may show a commercial Web page/abstract only).
  • E-Book (Library Catalogue Permalink) - link to book record in the catalogue with an icon to visit the book.
  • Convert OpenURL (for legacy programmes only - convert links from old formats such as the deprecated to our new OpenURL format 
  • E-Book search by title - list of E-Books matching specific title query
  • E-Book search by keyword -  list of E-Books matching keyword(s) query
  • DISCOVER (all resources) search by title - list of all E-Resources (books, journals, reports etc.) matching title query
  • DISCOVER (all resources) search by keyword - list of all E-Resources (books, journals, reports etc.) matching keyword(s) query
  • Scholar permalink  - useful for open access and pre-print sources only, if you use this for commercial databases such as Wiley, ScienceDirect, Emerald or other sources you may not be linking to the version subscribed via UoL, for commercial source, check other linking options before using a Scholar link.


Journal Title (* not article title)
Year Volume Issue Start page

If the DOI isn't shown in the article, you can try to locate it on Crossref.

DOI Number e.g. 10.1103/PhysRevA.68.021801
Public DOI (no UoL Login, useful for published works/theses) Press 'Build Link' to update the link for a non-UoL DOI

Document Object Identifier number (DOI) 

The DOI is a unique ID for an e-resource (usually an article) looking like 10.1103/PhysRevA.68.021801  The DOI can be made into a link using the online DOI service, e.g. these links can be accessed via a UoL login or alternatively as a public DOI without reference to the UoL login or library subscriptions.

You can usually find the DOI number when you view the article details - either on the article summary page within a database or in the full-text document of the article itself (alternatively, try the Cross Ref DOI search tool to locate a DOI number).
The DOI number looks like this:

You can make the DOI number into a link using this URL format: 

To use a DOI with the UoL/MWS login, this requires our proxy also adding:

You should test any DOI link you create. Some DOI links cannot resolve using the UoL/MWS login, this is because DOI requires a subscription to the primary publisher and we sometimes have access through a 3rd party publisher.

You can create a DOI link on the Link Builder page, this includes a checkbox to create a non-UoL based link which will be neutral of the UoL/MWS login (this may be  useful for including links in a dissertation, thesis or academic paper).


You are advised to add any books to our Reading Lists @ Liverpool platform to ensure links to Library E-Books.

Please consult the Online Librarian for other advice on permalinking to E-Books.

This tool can be used to convert old, or other older format links to supported formats.

Permalink tools within Databases

Note - You can also find permalink tools/options within individual databases, these links can be used to share stable links (these will not contain unstable sessional data), however the database may alter linking conventions over time and these links may stop working. 

  • Kanopy - see this guide for advice on creating links to clips/media in Kanopy,
  • LinkedIn Learning - add a video/playlist to your personal area using the + iconm, then from your collection, use the 'Share' icon to create a permalink to the content.
  • Individual databases (Emerald, WestLaw, Lexis, Springer, MarketLine etc.) - most databases have a permalink tool to obtain a link for sharing content, embedding in online modules or sharing via email, see the permalink or similarly named tool/icon usually shown in the top-right corner or top bar when viewing content, articles or reports.

Scholar Permalink

Article Title

CrossRef provides a range of DOI (Document Object Identifier) tools:

 customer service excellence